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A Strategic Blueprint for Strengthening Governance in Family Businesses in Africa

Family-owned enterprises are not only the backbone of Africa’s economy, contributing significantly to both GDP and employment, but they also uphold and transmit cultural and social values. In Kenya alone, family businesses account for 60% of GDP and more than 80% of private sector employment. 

Despite their economic importance, these businesses often face governance challenges that can impair their longevity and effectiveness. A 2018 PwC study highlighted a critical gap, showing that just 33% of African family businesses have a formal succession plan, compared to a global average of 42%.

These governance issues often stem from a complex interplay of family dynamics and business pressures, leading to potential instability and conflict within the business structure. 

There are several strategic measures that family businesses can employ to enhance governance and secure their future:

  1. Establish Clear Governance Structures: Formal governance structures are vital. Setting up a family council or board of directors with defined roles and responsibilities ensures that decisions are balanced between business acumen and family values, leading to more objective decision-making. In fact, in Tanzania, transitioning to formal governance has helped family businesses achieve an average annual growth rate of 15%.
  2. Develop a Family Constitution: A family constitution can significantly smooth operations and aid in conflict resolution. Such a document should detail employment policies, roles, and dispute resolution frameworks, mirroring the family’s and the business’s core values and objectives. In Uganda, family businesses that adopted a family constitution have seen a 20% reduction in family-related conflicts.
  3. Implement Succession Planning: With only a third of African family businesses formally planning for succession, there’s a clear need for structured, merit-based planning that not only decides who will take over but also how wealth is distributed and preserved across generations. This ensures business continuity and prepares future leaders.
  4. Foster Open Communication: Transparent communication is crucial. Holding regular family meetings and performance reviews helps to cultivate an open culture, reduces conflicts, and aligns family members with the business’s strategic goals.
  5. Promote Professionalism: Adopting best practices and modern management techniques can drive business efficiency and growth. Rwandan family businesses that have incorporated external professionals into key management roles have noted productivity increases of up to 25%.
  6. Ensure Financial Transparency: Robust financial management and reporting are essential. Implementing external audits and keeping personal and business finances separate not only protect the business’s assets but also enhance its credibility and attractiveness to investors.
  7. Engage in Continuous Education and Adaptation: The global business environment is constantly evolving, driven by technological advancements and market shifts. Staying committed to continuous learning and adapting to new practices can keep a business competitive. For instance, Kenyan family businesses engaging in digital transformation have reported average revenue growth of 10% year-on-year.


Family businesses in Africa are navigating a critical juncture, faced with traditional governance challenges and the pressures of a rapidly changing global economy. By adopting structured governance, fostering clear communication, and ensuring professional management, these enterprises can manage the complexities of today’s business environment while preserving the values central to their identity. The path towards strong governance is fraught with challenges but is crucial for family businesses aiming not just to survive, but to thrive for generations.

To determine if your family business needs to relook its governance practices, consider the following questions and considerations related to each strategic measure:

  1. Establish Clear Governance Structures: Does your family business have formally defined governance structures such as a family council or board of directors? Evaluate whether these structures are in place and functioning effectively to separate family and business issues.
  2. Develop a Family Constitution: Have you created and implemented a family constitution that outlines roles, responsibilities, and conflict resolution strategies? Consider how often conflicts are resolved smoothly and whether all family members are aware of and adhere to the guidelines set forth in the constitution.
  3. Implement Succession Planning: Is there a clear and formal plan for succession that addresses not only leadership transition but also wealth preservation and distribution? Assess the clarity and thoroughness of your succession plan, especially how it is communicated to and accepted by potential successors.
  4. Foster Open Communication: How frequently does your family business conduct structured meetings for discussing business performance and family issues? Reflect on the effectiveness of these meetings in promoting transparency and resolving disputes.
  5. Promote Professionalism: Does your business employ external professionals in key management roles? To what extent are management practices benchmarked against industry standards? Determine the impact of these practices on business efficiency and growth.
  6. Ensure Financial Transparency: Are the financial affairs of your business regularly audited by an external party? Are personal finances clearly separated from business accounts? Consider how these practices do maintain or would support maintaining the credibility and financial health of the business.
  7. Engage in Continuous Education and Adaptation: What steps has your business taken to keep abreast of technological advancements and shifts in the market landscape? Evaluate whether ongoing education and adaptation efforts are sufficient to maintain competitiveness and relevance in the market.

By addressing these questions, you can gain a comprehensive understanding of where your family business stands in terms of governance and what improvements may be necessary. Use this structured self-assessment to support making meaningful change that enhances the sustainability and success of your business.